A response to a loss where individuals regress to the oral stage of development, which allows them to integrate the identity of the person they have lost with their own.
A drug used in the treatment of bipolar disorder.
A theory of depression that argues that people become depressed following unavoidable negative life events because these events give rise to a cognitive set that makes individuals learn to become ‘helpless’, lethargic and depressed.
An emotion characterized by boundless, frenzied energy and feelings of euphoria.
A hormone which acts to slow organisms down, making them sleepy and less energetic.
Theories that argue that depression is maintained by a cycle of reassurance-seeking by depressed individuals that is subsequently rejected by family and friends because of the negative way in which depressed individuals talk about their problems.
A psychological problem characterized by relatively extended periods of clinical depression which cause significant distress to the individual and impairment in social or occupational functioning.
Major Depressive Episode
Episode of major depression, defined by the presence of five or more depressive symptoms during the same 2-week period, as stated by the DSM-5.