Chapter 4

Treating Psychopathology

Set E

Free Association

A technique used in psychoanalysis where the client is encouraged to verbalize all thoughts, feelings and images that come to mind.

Holistic Therapies

Therapies which emphasize the need to consider the ‘whole’ person, not just those ‘bits’ of the person that manifest psychopathology.

Group Therapy

Therapy taken in the form of a group, usually when individuals share similar problems or psychopathologies.

Internal Validity

Determining whether a treatment works because of the principles it contains.


In psychoanalysis, helping the client to identify important underlying conflicts.


A form of desensitization for the treatment of phobias and related disorders in which the patient is repeatedly exposed to highly distressing stimuli.

Humanistic Therapies

Therapies that attempt to consider the ‘whole’ person and not just the symptoms of psychopathology.

Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT)

NHS programme providing services across England for treating people with depression and anxiety disorders.