Chapter 3

Research Methods in Clinical Psychology

Set I

Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS)

A computer program specifically developed for statistical analysis for the social sciences.

Systematic Review

A review of a clearly formulated question that uses systematic and explicit methods to identify, select, and critically appraise relevant research, and to collect and analyse data from the studies that are included in the review.

Statistical Significance

The degree to which the outcome of a study is greater or smaller than would be expected by chance.


A full description of how the causal factors affecting psychopathology interact.


Of one’s own free will or design; not forced or compelled.

Social Constructionism

An approach to research in clinical psychology emphasizing that reality is a social construction, and so there are no basic ‘truths’ of the kind that we seek to discover using the scientific method.


A set of propositions that usually attempt to explain a phenomenon by describing the cause-effect relationships that contribute to that phenomenon.