Chapter 3

Research Methods in Clinical Psychology

Set D

Experimental Group

A group of participants who experience the independent variable in an experimental study.

External Validity

The extent to which the results of a study can be extrapolated to other situations.

Experimental Hypothesis

A prediction about what the outcome of an experimental manipulation might be (also known as experimental prediction).

Independent Variable (IV)

The variable that is manipulated in an experiment.

Informed Consent

Detailed information about an experiment given to participants in order to enable them to make an informed decision about participation.


A design in which the researcher manipulates a particular variable and observes the effect of this manipulation on some outcome, such as the participant’s behaviour.

Grounded Theory

An approach to qualitative analysis which involves identifying consistent categories or themes within the data, then building on these to provide more abstract theoretical insights into the phenomenon being studied.


A tentative explanation for a phenomenon used as a basis for further investigation.