Chapter 17

Neurodevelopmental Disorders

Set F

Special Educational Needs (SEN)

A term used in the UK to identify those who require instruction or education tailored to their specific needs.

Speech Sound Disorder

Persistent difficulty with speech sound production that interferes with speech intelligibility or prevents verbal communication of messages.

Specific Learning Disabilities

Disorders such as dyslexia and communication disabilities.

Tay-Sachs Disease

A metabolic disorder caused by a recessive gene which results in an absence of the enzyme hexosominidase A in the brain and central nervous system, eventually causing neurons to die.

Teenage Mothers

Young mothers who become pregnant before 18 years of age and who are likely to have lived in deprived areas prior to giving birth, are often unmarried, live in poverty as a result of their premature motherhood, and likely to have a significantly lower than average IQ.

Sheltered Workshops

Settings that provide individuals with intellectual disabilities with employment tailored to their own needs and abilities.


A disturbance in the normal fluency and time patterning of speech that is inappropriate for the individual’s age.

Supported Employment

A special programme designed with a built-in support mechanism to help people with physical, mental or developmental disabilities reach and keep their customized vocational goals and objectives.