Chapter 17

Neurodevelopmental Disorders

Set E

Phonological Theory

The view that reading disabilities in dyslexia are caused primarily by difficulties in differentiating the elements of speech (phonemes) and associating these sounds with the letters in a written word.

Recessive Gene

A gene that must be present on both chromosomes in a pair to show outward signs of a certain characteristic.

Pronoun Reversal

An impairment in communication in which an individual refers to himself or herself as ‘he’, ‘she’ or ‘you’.

Savant Syndrome

The phenomenon of extraordinary proficiency in one isolated skill in individuals with multiple cognitive disabilities. It appears to be closely linked to autistic spectrum disorder and is frequently found in Asperger’s syndrome.

Shaken Baby Syndrome

A form of child abuse that is known to cause intellectual disability. It refers to traumatic brain injury that occurs when a baby is violently shaken.

Phenylketonuria (PKU)

A metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency of the liver enzyme phenylalanine 4-hydroxylase, which is necessary for the effective metabolism of the amino acid phenylalanine.

Risperidone

A drug treatment for children with autism.

Sally-Ann False Belief Task

An imaginative procedure that has been used many times to assess theory of mind abilities in a range of clinical populations.