Chapter 17

Neurodevelopmental Disorders

Set C

Dyscalculia

A specific learning disability characterized by mathematical ability being substantially below norm for chronological age, intelligence and educational level.

Empathising-Systematising Theory

The argument that theory of mind deficits may help to explain many of the social and communication difficulties experienced by individuals with autistic spectrum disorder.

Echolalia

The immediate imitation of words or sounds that have just been heard.

Fragile X Syndrome

A chromosomal abnormality that causes intellectual disability where the X chromosome appears to show physical weaknesses and may be bent or broken.

Haloperidol

An antipsychotic medication most commonly used in the treatment of autism.

Down Syndrome

A disorder caused by the presence of an extra chromosome in pair 21 and characterized by intellectual disability and distinguishing physical features.

Executive Functions

Cognitive skills that involve problem-solving, planning and engaging in goal-directed behaviour.

Foetal Alcohol Syndrome

Physiological risk associated with heavy drinking in women, in which heavy drinking by a mother during pregnancy can cause physical and psychological abnormalities in the child.