Chapter 1

Introducing Psychopathology

Set I

Time to Change

A national UK programme aiming to promote awareness of mental health problems and to combat stigma and discrimination.

Token Economy

A reward system which involves participants receiving tokens for engaging in certain behaviours which at a later time can be exchanged for a variety of reinforcing or desired items.

Temperal Lobe

The areas of the brain that lie at the side of the head behind the temples and which are involved in hearing, memory, emotion, language, illusions, tastes and smells.


In Freud’s psychoanalytic theory the superego develops out of both the id (innate instinctual needs) and ego (a rational part of the psyche that attempts to control the impulses of the id), and represents our attempts to integrate ‘values’ that we learn from our parents or society.

Unconditional Positive Regard

Valuing clients for who they are without judging them.


A distinct set of symptoms.

Twin Studies

Studies in which researchers have compared the probability with which monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins both develop symptoms indicative of a psychopathology in order to assess genetic contributions to that psychopathology.