Chapter 1

Introducing Psychopathology

Set G

Oral Stage

According to Freud, the first 18 months of life based on the child’s need for food from the mother. If the mother fails to satisfy these oral needs, the child may become fixated at this stage and in later life display ‘oral stage characteristics’ such as extreme dependence on others.

Perceived Stigma/

Self Stigma

The internalizing by the mental health sufferer of their perceptions of discrimination and can significantly affect feelings of shame and lead to poorer treatment outcomes.

Parietal Lobe

Brain region associated with visuo-motor coordination.


The study of deviations from normal or everyday psychological functioning.

Recovery Model

Broad-ranging treatment approach which acknowledges the influence and importance of socio-economic status, employment and education and social inclusion.

Operant Conditioning

The learning of a specific behaviour or response because that behaviour has certain consequences.


A scientific method of treatment that is based on medicine, the primary approach of which is to identify the biological causes of psychopathology and treat them with medication or surgery.


An influential psychological model of psychopathology based on the theoretical works of Sigmund Freud.